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Tetrafluoroethane

1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane

R134a

CAS:811-97-2

Chemicals:

    1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, R-134a, Genetron 134a, Suva 134a or HFC-134a, is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane), but with less ozone depletion potential. It has the formula CH2FCF3, and a boiling point of −26.3 °C (−15.34 °F) at atmospheric pressure.

Uses:
    1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane is an inert gas used primarily as a “high-temperature” refrigerant for domestic refrigeration and automobile air conditioners. These devices began using 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane in the early 1990s as a replacement for the more environmentally harmful R-12, and retrofit kits are available to convert units that were originally R-12-equipped. Other uses include plastic foam blowing, as a cleaning solvent, a propellant for the delivery of pharmaceuticals (e.g. bronchodilators), wine cork removers, gas dusters, and in air driers for removing the moisture from compressed air. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane has also been used to cool computers in some overclocking attempts. It is also commonly used as a propellant for airsoft airguns.

    Tetrafluoroethane, when compressed as inside gas duster cans, is a clear liquid which boils when exposed to room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use.Recently, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane has been subject to use restrictions due to its contribution to climate change. In the EU, it will be banned as of 2011 in all new cars. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has proposed 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) to be best replaced by a new fluorochemical refrigerant HFO-1234yf (CF3CF=CH2) in automobile air-conditioning systems. California may also prohibit the sale of canned 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane to individuals to avoid non-professional recharge of air conditioners.A ban has been in place in Wisconsin since October 1994 under ATCP 136 prohibiting sales of container sizes holding less than 15 lbs of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, but this restriction applies only when the chemical is intended to be a refrigerant. It appears, for example, that it is legal for a person to purchase gas duster containers with any amount of the chemical because in that instance the chemical is neither intended to be a refrigerant  nor is HFC-134a included in the § 7671a listing of class I and class II substances.1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane is also being considered as an organic solvent suitable for extraction of flavor and fragrance compounds, as a possible alternative to other organic solvents and supercritical carbon dioxide.It can also be used as a solvent in organic chemistry, both in liquid and supercritical fluid.It is used in the resistive plate chamber particle detectors in the Large Hadron Collider. It is also used for other types of particle detectors, e.g. some cryogenic particle detectors. It can be used as an alternative to sulfur hexafluoride in magnesium smelting as a shielding gas.1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane is also being considered as an alternative to sulfur hexafluoride as a dielectric gas.Its arc-quenching properties are poor, but its dielectric properties are fairly good.

History:
    1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane first appeared in the early 1990s as a replacement for dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12), which has ozone depleting properties. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane has been atmospherically modeled for its impact on depleting ozone and as a contributor to global warming. Research suggests that over the past 10 years the concentration of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane has increased significantly in the Earth's atmosphere, with a recent study revealing a doubling in atmospheric concentration between 2001 and 2004. It has insignificant ozone depletion potential (ozone layer), significant global warming potential (100-yr GWP = 1430) and negligible acidification potential (acid rain)

Safety:
    Contact of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane with flames or hot surfaces in excess of 250 °C (482 °F) may cause vapor decomposition and the emission of toxic gases including hydrogen fluoride and carbonyl halides.[18] 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane itself has an LD50 (lethal concentration for 50% of subjects) in rats of 1,500 g/m³, making it relatively non-toxic. However, its gaseous form is denser than air, and will displace air in the lungs. This can result in asphyxiation if excessively inhaled. This is what contributes to most deaths by inhalant abuse.Aerosol cans containing 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, when inverted, become effective freeze sprays. Under pressure, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane is compressed into a liquid, which upon vaporization absorbs a significant amount of thermal energy. As a result, it will greatly lower the temperature of any object it contacts as it evaporates. This can result in frostbite when it contacts skin, as well as blindness upon eye contact.

Physical Properties HCF-134a
Boiling Point at 1 atm (101.3 kPa or 1.013 bar) –15.34 °F (–26.3 °C)
Freezing Point –153.9 °F (–103.3 °C)
Critical Temperature 213.9 °F (101.1 °C)
Critical Pressure 4060 kPa (588.9 lb/in² abs)
Critical Volume 1.94 × 103 m³/kg (0.031 ft³/lb)
Critical Density 515.3 kg/m³ (32.17 lb/ft³)
Density (Liquid) at 25 °C (77 °F) 1206 kg/m³ (75.28 lb/ft³)
Density (Saturated Vapor) at boiling point 5.25 kg/m³ (0.328 lb/ft³)
Heat Capacity (Liquid) at 25 °C (77 °F) 0.339 kcal/kg·K or Btu/(lb) (°F)
Heat Capacity (Vapor at Constant Pressure) at 25 °C (77 °F) and 1 atm (101.3 kPa or 1.013 bar) 0.204 kcal/kg·K or Btu/(lb) (°F)

Vapor Pressure at 25 °C (77 °F) kPa 666.1 bar 6.661
psia 96.61 Heat of Vaporization at Boiling Point kJ/kg 217.2 Btu/lb 93.4 Thermal Conductivity at 25 °C (77 °F) Liquid W/m·K 0.0824 Btu/hr·ft°F 0.0478 Vapor at 1 atm (101.3 kPa or 1.013 bar) W/m·K 0.0145 Btu/hr·ft°F 0.00836 Viscosity at 25 °C (77 °F) Liquid mPa·S (cP) 0.202 Vapor at 1 atm (101.3 kPa or 1.013 bar) mPa·S (cP) 0.012 Solubility of HFC-134a wt% 0.15 in Water at 25 °C (77 °F) and 1 atm (101.3 kPa or 1.013 bar) Solubility of Water in HFC-134a wt% 0.11 at 25 °C (77 °F) Flammability Limits in Air at 1 atm (101.3 kPa or 1.013 bar) vol % None Autoignition Temperature °C 770 °F 1,418 Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) — 0 Halocarbon Global Warming Potential (HGWP) — 0.28 (For CFC-11, HGWP = 1) Global Warming Potential (GWP) — 1,200 (100 yr ITH. For CO2, GWP = 1) TSCA Inventory Status — Reported/Included Toxicity AEL* (8- and 12-hr TWA) ppm (v/v) 1,000

  • AEL (Acceptable Exposure Limit) is an airborne inhalation exposure limit established by DuPont that specifies time-weighted

average concentrations to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed without adverse effects. Note: kPa is absolute pressure.



1,1,1,2-TETRAFLUOROETHANE ICSC: 1281
Date of Peer Review: March 1998
HFC 134a 
(cylinder) 
CAS # 811-97-2 C2H2F4
RTECS # KI8842500 Molecular mass: 102.03
UN # 3159
EC #
TYPES OF HAZARD / EXPOSURE ACUTE HAZARDS / SYMPTOMS PREVENTION FIRST AID / FIRE FIGHTING
FIRE Not combustible. Gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases) in a fire. 
NO open flames. NO contact with hot surfaces. 
In case of fire in the surroundings: use appropriate extinguishing media. 
EXPLOSION

In case of fire: keep cylinder cool by spraying with water. 
EXPOSURE


Inhalation Dizziness. Drowsiness. Dullness. 
Local exhaust or breathing protection. 
Fresh air, rest. Refer for medical attention. 
Skin ON CONTACT WITH LIQUID: FROSTBITE. 
Cold-insulating gloves. 
ON FROSTBITE: rinse with plenty of water, do NOT remove clothes. 
Eyes
Safety goggles. 

Ingestion


SPILLAGE DISPOSAL PACKAGING & LABELLING
NEVER direct water jet on liquid. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Chemical protection suit including self-contained breathing apparatus. 
EU Classification 
UN Classification 
UN Hazard Class: 2.2

EMERGENCY RESPONSE SAFE STORAGE
Transport Emergency Card: TEC (R)-20G2A 
Fireproof. Keep in a well-ventilated room. 
IPCS 
International 
Programme on 
Chemical Safety
Prepared in the context of cooperation between the International Programme on Chemical Safety and the Commission of the European Communities � IPCS, CEC 2004 

SEE IMPORTANT INFORMATION ON BACK

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1,1,1,2-TETRAFLUOROETHANE ICSC: 1281
IMPORTANT DATA
PHYSICAL STATE; APPEARANCE: 
COMPRESSED LIQUEFIED GAS, WITH CHARACTERISTIC ODOUR.

CHEMICAL DANGERS: 
On contact with hot surfaces or flames this substance decomposes forming toxic and corrosive fumes.

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS: 
TLV not established. 
MAK: 1000 ppm, 4200 mg/m3; Peak limitation category: II(8); Pregnancy risk group: C; (DFG 2004).
ROUTES OF EXPOSURE: 
The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation.

INHALATION RISK: 
A harmful concentration of this gas in the air will be reached very quickly on loss of containment.

EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE: 
Rapid evaporation of the liquid may cause frostbite. The substance may cause effects on the central nervous system and cardiovascular system, resulting in cardiac disorders.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Boiling point: -26°C
Melting point: -101°C
Solubility in water: none
Vapour pressure, kPa at 25°C: 630
Relative vapour density (air = 1): 3.5
Octanol/water partition coefficient as log Pow: 1.06
ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
This substance does enter the environment under normal use. Great care, however, should be given to avoid any additional release, e.g. through inappropriate disposal. 
NOTES
Do NOT use in the vicinity of a fire or a hot surface, or during welding. Turn leaking cylinder with the leak up to prevent escape of gas in liquid state. 
Card has been partly updated in April 2005. See sections Occupational Exposure Limits, Emergency Response. 
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION


LEGAL NOTICE Neither the CEC nor the IPCS nor any person acting on behalf of the CEC or the IPCS is responsible for the use which might be made of this information
� IPCS, CEC 2004
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